Written by Dr. Chandrakanth Edamakanti Edited by Dr. Hayley McLoughlin
Recent study decodes the protein signature of toxic Purkinje cells, finding that Purkinje cell mTORC1 signaling is impaired in SCA1.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is a late onset cerebellar neurodegenerative disorder caused by a mutation (in this case, an abnormal polyglutamine stretch) in the Ataxin-1 gene. People with this condition experience problems with coordination and balance, a set of symptoms known as ataxia. The protein produced by this faulty gene, ATXN1, is particularly toxic to the Purkinje cells, the sole output neurons of the cerebellum. However, the reason behind the selective toxicity of Purkinje cells in SCA1 is unknown.
The main focus of this article is to address this question. It is the first study to find the protein signature of toxic Purkinje cells in SCA1 mice. In the end, the authors identified widespread protein changes that are associated with Purkinje cell toxicity.
Written by Logan Morrison Edited by Dr. Sriram Jayabal
Stanford researchers accidentally discover a new role (reward prediction) for the cerebellum, the primary brain region affected by spinocerebellar ataxias.
Would you believe that the part of your brain that enables you to perform simple, everyday tasks (like jogging or walking) also controls your ability to do more complex tasks (like throwing a curve ball) with accuracy? It’s true! Every one of our body’s movements is adjusted by a brain region known as the cerebellum – a primary area of pathology in spinocerebellar ataxias. The name “cerebellum” is a combination of the Latin word for the brain – cerebrum – and the Latin suffix -ellus, which means small. While this “little brain” might not take up much room, it actually contains the vast majority of the nerve cells (known as neurons) in the central nervous system1. Take a look at the image included with this article to see for yourself: even without the red highlighting, the cerebellum should be instantly recognizable as the distinctive structure in the bottom right, so folded and densely-packed that it looks a bit like something you’d find on the branches of a fern or shrub. Among these many folds are the circuits that fine-tune our motor output, providing us with the ability to move our bodies with ease and precision.
For decades, not much else was said about the function of the cerebellum beyond its primary role in tweaking movement. Recently, though, there have been some hints that there is more to this part of the brain than we might have thought: brain imaging studies of patients suffering from bipolar disorder, for instance, have sometimes shown abnormalities in the cerebellum3, 4. Cerebellar abnormalities have been implicated in a variety of other diseases, as well, including autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, and multiple sclerosis5, 6. Now, thanks to the hard work of scientists at Stanford University7 – as well as a bit of luck – we know that the cerebellum is not only involved in how we move, but why.