Snapshot: What is a biomarker?

A biomarker is any biological-based measurement that provides useful information regarding a person’s health. For example, blood test results showing increased glucose levels can be used as a biomarker for diabetes. A blood test showing an increased white blood cell count is a biomarker for infection. There are many sources of biomarkers beyond blood biomarkers. MRI, CT, and x-ray scans are all examples of imaging biomarkers. Scored motor assessments can also be used as biomarkers. For example, police use the field sobriety test as a biomarker for alcohol consumption.

Biomarkers can be used to:

  • Diagnose an existing disease or predict a patient’s prognosis.
  • Track disease progression.
  • Determine whether experimental drugs prevent, improve, or slow progression of disease within clinical trials.
close up photo of a measuring tape on a white background, with the end fading off into the distance.
Biomarkers act like a measure tape for diseases. Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

What are current biomarkers for spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs)?

There are multiple biomarkers that are commonly used for patients with ataxia. DNA sequencing from saliva or blood samples of undiagnosed patients with ataxia symptoms can be used to diagnose or rule out SCAs caused by known genetic mutations. The Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) scoring is a common motor assessment used to measure and track severity of ataxia-related balance and coordination issues in patients. MRI scans and other brain imaging techniques can be used to examine brain abnormalities or loss of brain cells.

Why do we need better biomarkers for SCAs?

In an ideal clinical trial, a patient would receive the potential treatment and then undergo a simple assessment (i.e. give a blood sample) shortly after that could conclusively determine whether the drug is working. Thankfully, many potential ataxia treatments are currently in development or are already being tested in clinical trials for patients with SCAs. Unfortunately, we currently do not have an easy, cheap, and sensitive way to measure whether ataxia symptoms are worsening or improving in a relatively short amount of time.

How can we identify better biomarkers for the SCAs?

Researchers are actively seeking better biomarkers for SCAs in animal and cell models of ataxia. There are also multiple ongoing “Natural History” and biomarker clinical trials that focus on different types of SCA diseases. These clinical studies aim to improve our understanding of the SCAs and identify new biomarkers to improve ataxia diagnosis and drug development. These studies may track patients over months or years, and can involve multiple tests, including blood or cerebrospinal fluid samples, brain imaging, or SARA scoring.

If you would like to learn more about biomarkers, take a look at these resources by the ALS Association and News Medical.

Snapshot written by Dr. Lauren Moore and edited by Dr. Gulin Oz.